What are the Different Types of Forging Processes?

There are four types of forging manufacturing processes that are commonly used to shape metal parts. These processes include impression die forging (closed die), cold forging, open die forging, and seamless rolled ring forging. By using localized compressive forces, metal forgings provide a highly effective way to create various parts for all applications.

Impression Die Forging

Often referred to as closed die forging, the impression die forging process utilizes dies that completely enclose the base material, making it easier to shape the material into its desired shape. Compared to other forging processes, impression closed die forging requires greater compressive forces to ensure the die cavities are filled and form the complete part.

Impression die forging processes create numerous types of 3-D parts that range from a few ounces to several tons.

Impression Die Forging Advantages

  • Generate less metal waste
  • Higher production rates
  • Provides enhanced fatigue and impact resistance
  • Produces parts with higher strength-to-weight ratios

Cold Forging

The cold forging process is designed to create parts and components that display enhanced surface finish quality and tight tolerance dimensions. Unlike most other forging processes, cold forging does not utilize heat for part structure shaping but rather colder temperatures to produce various components.

Cold forging is used to create various parts and components, including shafts, hollow parts with shafts and stems, odd configurations, and cup-shaped geometries.

Cold Forging Advantages

  • Creates tight tolerances
  • Produces good surface finish quality
  • Economical
  • Little to no material waste
  • Dies last longer than those used for heat forging
  • Increased yield and tensile strength

Cold Forging Material Options

  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Copper
  • Brass

Open Die Forging

Also referred to as smith forging, open die manufactured parts are shaped through direct force. A hammer strikes and deforms the workpiece In open die forging, held in place by two flat dies. This process is called open die forging since the dies do not enclose the workpiece. Within this forging process, the dies act more like tools rather than enclosed molds.

Open die forging can produce forgings from a few pounds up to more than 150 tons and is ideal for parts weighing over 200,000 lbs. and 80 feet in length.

Open Die Forging Advantages

  • Improved fatigue resistance
  • Continuous grain flow
  • Longer part life
  • Increased strength
  • Less chance of voids
  • Finer grain size

Seamless Rolled Ring Forging

Typically performed by punching a hole in a thick, round piece of metal and then rolling and squeezing the donut into a thin ring, seamless rolled ring forging processes are ideal for producing ring diameters ranging from a few inches to 30 feet. Compared to other forging processes, rolled ring forging utilizes curved dies instead of flat dies to form ring-shaped components.

Seamless Rolled Ring Forging Advantages

  • Superior structural integrity
  • Increased strength
  • Controlled directional flow
  • Eliminates welding, inclusions, and porosity

Contact Great Lakes Forge for Expert Metal Forging Manufacturing Services

Great Lakes Forge is your trusted resource for expert quality forging processes for your metal part and component manufacturing needs. Contact us for more information on our custom forging service options, or give us a call at 800-748-0271, and we’ll help you find the best forging options for your project.